Why is Maritime Security Capacity Building important?
SAFE SEAS studies maritime security governance and efforts to support it through external capacity building. The current re-evaluation of the maritime as a space of insecurity and economic opportunity has led to a growing awareness for the weak capacities of the majority of coastal states. Protecting territorial waters and Exclusive Economic Zones, preventing maritime crimes, such as piracy and illegal fishing, and ensuring the sustainable exploitation of maritime resources requires significant law enforcement capacities, information sharing tools and working maritime governance structures.
Capacity Building in the Western Indian Ocean
Various capacity building projects have been launched to offer assistance to countries. In particular, the Western Indian Ocean region has become an experimental space in which new forms of assistance are tested. The majority of these project was initially a response to piracy off the coast of Somalia from 2008. With the decline of piracy incidents since 2012, the efforts were broadened to focus on maritime insecurities and law enforcement at sea more generally.
A series of multi-lateral projects address the regional level. Initiatives such as the Djibouti Code of Conduct process supported by the International Maritime Organization and the European Union’s CRIMARIO project, the European Union’s Programme to Promote Regional Maritime Security (known as MASE), and the EU’s civilian capacity building mission EUCAP Nestor (recently re-branded as EUCAP Somalia) aim at strengthening regional cooperation.
Several UN agencies are involved: The Food and Agricultural Organization is in particular active in fishery governance, the International Maritime Organization in the field of port security and search and rescue at sea, while the UN Office on Drugs and Crime works in the criminal justice sector with law enforcement agencies, prosecutors, judges and prison staff. Also, a broad range of smaller scale bilateral or non-governmental projects provides equipment, training or mentoring.
Understanding how capacity building works
The vast array of capacity building activities has led to questioning how these projects can be better coordinated to achieve synergies, avoid overlap and duplication and ensure the sustainability of the assistance. There is a clear recognition that capacity building should be based on needs and focus on the core gaps. Yet how can such needs and gaps be identified? And how can capacity building be improved?
SAFE SEAS studies lessons from maritime security capacity building in the Western Indian Ocean. The project particularly focusses on the ongoing efforts to restructure the maritime security sector in Djibouti, Kenya, Seychelles, and Somalia, but also studies Pakistan and South Africa more closely. The analysis focusses on how each country is organizing and governing maritime security. Drawing on this evidence and on interviews with capacity building providing organizations, as well as the receivers, SafeSeas draws out guidelines and best practices for maritime security governance and the coordination, programming, and implementation of maritime security capacity building. Visit the news and results sections for the intitial outcomes.
SAFE SEAS is a collaboration between Cardiff University and the University of Bristol. SAFE SEAS is implemented by two lead investigators and works with a team of seven researchers.
// Professor Christian Bueger, Cardiff University
Prof. Bueger is the principal investigator of SAFE SEAS. He has been studying issues of maritime security, counter-piracy operations, capacity building and maritime domain awareness since 2010 and has widely published in the area. He is also the principal investigator of the Lessons Learned Consortium of the Contact Group on Piracy off the Coast of Somalia. Further information is available on his personal website.
// Professor Tim Edmunds, University of Bristol
Prof. Edmunds is professor of international security and the co-investigator of the project. He is a leading specialist in security sector reform policies and the politics of armed forces. Recently he has been in particular studying the security assistance in Somalia. Further information is available at his university website.
// Dr. Robert McCabe, Cardiff University
Dr. McCabe is a Postdoctoral Research Associate of the project. He holds a PhD in Strategic Studies/International Security and an MA in Military History and Strategic Studies. His book Modern Maritime Piracy: Genesis, Evolution and Responses was published with Routledge in September 2017. Further information is available here.
// Dr. Rupert Alcock, Bristol University
Dr. Alcock is a Postdoctoral Research Assistant on the project. He completed his PhD in Politics at the University of Bristol in March 2017 and holds an MSc in Development & Security Studies and Social Science Research Methods. Further information is available here.
// Alvine Marie, Seychelles
Alvine completed a Master of Laws degree at Cardiff University in 2016. His wider research interests include the Legal & Political aspects of International Affairs as well as Money Laundering & Financial crime. Currently, he is working as legal officer at the Seychelles Financial Services Authority.
// Njoki Mboce, University of Nairobi
Njoki is currently pursuing her PhD at the University of Nairobi School of Law, in the area of maritime law. She holds a Master of Laws (LL.M), specializing in international trade and investments and has published several articles in refereed journals such as the Chartered Institute of Arbitrators – Kenya Chapter Journal.
// Mowlid Aden, Djibouti
Mowlid holds a BSc in Information Systems and Management from the University of London with Executive Education at The Institute for Policy and Strategy (IPS), Herzylia-Israel and ENA in Paris. He is currently a Director of Security Compliance and Managing Director of the RSO at Djibouti Ports & Free Zone Authority.
Funding and Partners
SAFE SEAS received financial support by the British Academy Sustainable Development Programme [GF16007] and part of the UK’s Global Challenges Research Fund initiative to strengthen development through research. It has also received financial support by Cardiff University, University of Bristol and the Security Institute for Governance and Leadership in Africa of the University of Stellenboschc. It is implemented in collaboration with the University of Seychelles, the University of Nairobi and the University of Stellenbosch as well as a range of partners.