Introduction Illegal, Unreported, and Unregulated (IUU) fishing encompasses a broad array of practices. These generally centre on the evasion of global and domestic fisheries management arrangements and legislation, as well as conservation regulations within and beyond national jurisdiction. It threatens maritime security by causing loss of economic revenue, environmental damage, and damaging livelihoods of coastal ..
Introduction Pollution is defined in the UN Convention on the Law of the Sea as ‘the introduction by man, directly or indirectly, of substances or energy into the marine environment, including estuaries, resulting in such deleterious effects as harm to living resources, hazards to human health, hindrance to marine activities, including fishing, impairment of quality ..
Introduction Plastic pollution has emerged as a significant maritime concern. While reported as a problem since the 1970s, it is only recently that it has been identified as a global issue.. Plastic pollution is now ubiquitous across all oceans, including the polar regions. Due to its durability, the lifespan of plastic is estimated to be ..
Introduction Abandoned, lost, & discarded fishing gear (ALDFG), or ghost gear, refers to a specific form of marine pollution resulting from fishing gear waste. There is a growing body of evidence as the impact, often labelled ghost fishing, has become more apparent in recent years. Characteristics Type of gear In a study by Gilman et ..
Introduction Crimes against cultural heritage comprise the unauthorised disturbance of manmade cultural sites and objects, often for profit. The United Nations Educational Scientific and Cultural Organization (UNESCO) 2001 Convention on the Protection of the Underwater Cultural Heritage defines cultural heritage as ‘all traces of human existence having a cultural, historical or archaeological character which have ..
Introduction Shipbreaking refers to the recycling of end of life ships. It is also known as demolition, disposal, or recycling, especially by industry stakeholders. It becomes problematic or criminalized when it takes place through unregulated means or against international environmental standards due to uneven regulations. Ships are recycled because they are no longer sea-worthy, because ..
Introduction Ocean grabbing refers to the dispossession or appropriation of use, control or access to ocean space or resources from prior resource users, rights holders, or inhabitants; often small-scale fishers and local coastal communities. Dispossession may occur through “inappropriate governance processes that might employ acts that undermine human security or livelihoods, or produce impacts that ..
This report provides a review of available data sources on maritime environmen..