This article is primarily interested in distribution, focusing on the movement of drugs by maritime routes. It focuses on heroin, cocaine, cannabis, and Amphetamine-Type-Substan..
Introduction Human trafficking is defined as “the recruitment, transportation, transfer, harbouring or receipt of persons, by means of the threat, or use of force or other forms of coercion, of abduction, of fraud, of deception, of the abuse of power or of a position of vulnerability or of the giving or receiving of payments or ..
Introduction This entry covers address maritime people smuggling and irregular migration by sea. Both terms refer to the transit of people across maritime boundaries outside of accepted regulatory frameworks. People smuggling is defined as: “the procurement, in order to obtain, directly or indirectly a financial or other material benefit, of the illegal entry of a ..
Introduction The United Nations Firearms Protocol defines ‘illicit trafficking’ as “the import, export, acquisition, sale, delivery, movement or transfer of firearms, their parts and components, and ammunition from or across the territory of one State Party to that of another State Party if any one of the States Parties concerned does not authorize it in ..
Introduction Wildlife trafficking is the illegal trade in endangered or protected flora and fauna . The wildlife trafficking chain includes the collecting, harvesting, possessing, processing, acquiring, and transporting of the wildlife in question.. This entry focuses primarily on the trafficking of animals and animal products. Timber trafficking is addressed in its own entry elsewhere on ..
Introduction Timber trafficking is the transport of illegal or illicit timber. it occurs through mislabelling, the forging of certificates and authorisation permits, laundering with legal timber, obscuring of source through port-hopping, processing in third-countries, and corruption. Characteristics Practices & Routes Timber varieties are banned or subject to quotas under the Convention on International Trade in ..
Waste smuggling is the transiting of illegal waste, predominantly from the Global North to the Global South. This waste is often illegal as a result of it being contaminated by toxic materials, or because it is mislabelled to circumvent the attainment of permits and overcome import barriers. Waste smuggling impacts the environment through plastic dumping ..
Introduction Oil smuggling refers to the transporting illicit forms of oils, fuels and other petrochemical materials across borders. Oil is smuggled for many reasons including tax evasion, sanctions evasion or because it comes from oil theft, piracy and crimes against maritime infrastructures such as oil platforms and pipelines. Smuggled oil can end up in neighbouring ..
Introduction Counterfeit smuggling refers to the smuggling of goods in contravention of intellectual property rights and trademarks. Goods including cigarettes, alcohol, foodstuffs, pharmaceuticals, cosmetics, electronics, and clothing and fashion accessories are frequently smuggled by sea. Counterfeit smuggling takes a number of forms. The first is the concealing of finished products, either physically in ship cargos ..
Introduction This entry covers otherwise-licit goods that are smuggled or traded informally to avoid regulations and tax, or for money laundering purposes. The specific issues of oil and counterfeit smuggling are covered elsewhere on this site. The smuggling of goods to avoid tax and customs duties, as well as tariffs, associated costs, and regulations includes ..