Waste smuggling is the transiting of illegal waste, predominantly from the Global North to the Global South. This waste is often illegal as a result of it being contaminated by toxic materials, or because it is mislabelled to circumvent the attainment of permits and overcome import barriers. Waste smuggling impacts the environment through plastic dumping ..
Introduction Oil smuggling refers to the transporting illicit forms of oils, fuels and other petrochemical materials across borders. Oil is smuggled for many reasons including tax evasion, sanctions evasion or because it comes from oil theft, piracy and crimes against maritime infrastructures such as oil platforms and pipelines. Smuggled oil can end up in neighbouring ..
Introduction Counterfeit smuggling refers to the smuggling of goods in contravention of intellectual property rights and trademarks. Goods including cigarettes, alcohol, foodstuffs, pharmaceuticals, cosmetics, electronics, and clothing and fashion accessories are frequently smuggled by sea. Counterfeit smuggling takes a number of forms. The first is the concealing of finished products, either physically in ship cargos ..
Introduction This entry covers otherwise-licit goods that are smuggled or traded informally to avoid regulations and tax, or for money laundering purposes. The specific issues of oil and counterfeit smuggling are covered elsewhere on this site. The smuggling of goods to avoid tax and customs duties, as well as tariffs, associated costs, and regulations includes ..
This report provides a review of available data sources on maritime illic..
Introduction Illegal, Unreported, and Unregulated (IUU) fishing encompasses a broad array of practices. These generally centre on the evasion of global and domestic fisheries management arrangements and legislation, as well as conservation regulations within and beyond national jurisdiction. It threatens maritime security by causing loss of economic revenue, environmental damage, and damaging livelihoods of coastal ..
Introduction Pollution is defined in the UN Convention on the Law of the Sea as ‘the introduction by man, directly or indirectly, of substances or energy into the marine environment, including estuaries, resulting in such deleterious effects as harm to living resources, hazards to human health, hindrance to marine activities, including fishing, impairment of quality ..
Introduction Plastic pollution has emerged as a significant maritime concern. While reported as a problem since the 1970s, it is only recently that it has been identified as a global issue.. Plastic pollution is now ubiquitous across all oceans, including the polar regions. Due to its durability, the lifespan of plastic is estimated to be ..
Introduction Abandoned, lost, & discarded fishing gear (ALDFG), or ghost gear, refers to a specific form of marine pollution resulting from fishing gear waste. There is a growing body of evidence as the impact, often labelled ghost fishing, has become more apparent in recent years. Characteristics Type of gear In a study by Gilman et ..
Introduction Crimes against cultural heritage comprise the unauthorised disturbance of manmade cultural sites and objects, often for profit. The United Nations Educational Scientific and Cultural Organization (UNESCO) 2001 Convention on the Protection of the Underwater Cultural Heritage defines cultural heritage as ‘all traces of human existence having a cultural, historical or archaeological character which have ..