Introduction There is a significant body of work discussing what constitutes contemporary piracy. Under the UN Convention on the Law of the Sea (UNCLOS), piracy is defined as ‘illegal acts of violence or detention, or any act of depredation, committed for private ends by the crew or the passengers of a private ship’ against another ..
Introduction Maritime cyber-crimes are illegal actions undertaken against ships or critical infrastructures through computer channels. Attacks can have a wide variety of purposes, including to damage, destroy or hijack IT (Information Technology) or OT (Operations Technology) systems. Multiple different targets, forms of attacks, motivations, and perpetrators can be involved in cyber-crimes. Port, by Bill Dickinson ..
Introduction The amended Convention on Facilitation of International Maritime Traffic, 1965 defines a stowaway as ‘A person who is secreted on a ship, or in cargo which is subsequently loaded on the ship, without the consent of the shipowner or the Master or any other responsible person and who is detected on board the ship ..
This report provides a review of available data sources ..
This article is primarily interested in distribution, focusing on the movement of drugs by maritime routes. It focuses on heroin, cocaine, cannabis, and Amphetamine-Type-Substan..
Introduction Human trafficking is defined as “the recruitment, transportation, transfer, harbouring or receipt of persons, by means of the threat, or use of force or other forms of coercion, of abduction, of fraud, of deception, of the abuse of power or of a position of vulnerability or of the giving or receiving of payments or ..
Introduction This entry covers address maritime people smuggling and irregular migration by sea. Both terms refer to the transit of people across maritime boundaries outside of accepted regulatory frameworks. People smuggling is defined as: “the procurement, in order to obtain, directly or indirectly a financial or other material benefit, of the illegal entry of a ..
Introduction The United Nations Firearms Protocol defines ‘illicit trafficking’ as “the import, export, acquisition, sale, delivery, movement or transfer of firearms, their parts and components, and ammunition from or across the territory of one State Party to that of another State Party if any one of the States Parties concerned does not authorize it in ..
Introduction Wildlife trafficking is the illegal trade in endangered or protected flora and fauna . The wildlife trafficking chain includes the collecting, harvesting, possessing, processing, acquiring, and transporting of the wildlife in question.. This entry focuses primarily on the trafficking of animals and animal products. Timber trafficking is addressed in its own entry elsewhere on ..
Introduction Timber trafficking is the transport of illegal or illicit timber. it occurs through mislabelling, the forging of certificates and authorisation permits, laundering with legal timber, obscuring of source through port-hopping, processing in third-countries, and corruption. Characteristics Practices & Routes Timber varieties are banned or subject to quotas under the Convention on International Trade in ..