Introduction Flags of convenience refers to the practice of vessels registering in countries with less restrictive regulation or regulatory enforcement, particularly concerning the environment and labour. They are often more formally referred to as ‘open registries’. Flags of convenience operate in a context where the United Nations Convention on the Law of the Sea (UNCLOS) ..
Introduction Transhipment is a relatively straightforward activity, comprising the exchange of goods from one vessel to another that is being used solely for transporting cargo. Transhipment has become an important component of in the fishing industry particularly.. Refrigerated transhipment vessels act as hubs, allowing smaller and less well-equipped vessels to fish at greater distances from ..
Introduction Slavery and labour abuses are most commonly found in the fishing and the seafood processing industries, to the extent that they are often understood as a fisheries crime. Labour abuses also take place in other sectors such as shipping, though to a lesser degree due to stronger labour regulations. This entry primarily discusses the ..
Introduction Bunkering refers to the activity of loading fuel onto ships. Here we focus on the distinct activity of illegal ship-to-ship (STS) or terminal-to-ship (TTS) transfers of oil. An illegal STS transfer might take place because the transferred fuel is stolen or prohibited due to sanctions, the activity itself is regulated for safety reasons, or ..