Working Papers

SafeSeas publishes preliminary results related to current projects on a regular basis as Working Papers.

  • Blue Crime: Conceptualising Transnational Organised Crime at Sea. Transnational organised crime at sea is a growing international concern. However, and despite its importance, the concept remains uncertain and contested. Debate continues over the term itself, what illicit activities it incorporates and excludes, and how these can be meaningfully conceptualised in ways that that both recognise the diverse nature of the concept yet also provide a basis for an integrated response to the challenges it presents. In this paper, we provide a systemic conceptualisation by proposing the concept of blue crime as a framework. Our goal is to provide a firm basis for future enquiries on the different types of blue crime, to trace their distinct characteristics and identify how they intersect, and to consider what kinds of synergies can be built to respond to them. Keywords: Organised Crime; Oceans; Classification;
  • Pragmatic spaces and the maritime security agenda (forthcoming). The oceans are increasingly understood as a security space. Does the new maritime security agenda lead to new spatial configurations? This chapter introduces the concept of ‘pragmatic spaces’ to explore spatial configurations produced in responses to maritime security. Four exemplary spaces are discussed: how counter-piracy led to the development of high risk areas, how maritime security capacity building produced new regions constructed through codes of conduct, how the identification of smuggling routes established new forms of international partnerships, and how maritime domain awareness systems advance new transnational spaces of surveillance. These new spatial configurations were introduced to manage maritime security issues and enable transnational forms of governance. Keywords: Spatiality; special zones at sea; maritime security; capacity building

Working papers related to the Capacity Building in the Western Indian Ocean region project (2017-2019):

  • Maritime Security Capacity Building: Spotting the Gaps. Discusses which methodologies are available for assessing maritime security sectors. Introduces the SPIP methodology developed and tested in the frame of SAFE SEAS. Keywords: Maritime Security Sector Reform; Capacity Building Needs; Maritime Security Strategies; SPIP Methodology.
  • Capacity Building and the Ownership Dilemma. Addresses the question of ‘local ownership’ in international capacity building and security sector reform.Keywords: Maritime Security Sector Reform; Capacity Building; Local Ownership; Dilemmas of Ownership; SPIP Methodology.
  • Mapping Maritime Security Sectors. Outlines the framework for mapping maritime security sectors further developing the SPIP methodology as a framework. Keywords: Mapping Maritime Security; SPIP Methodology; Maritime Security Sector Reform; Spaces, Problems, Institutions and Projects; Maritime Governance.
  • Maritime Security in Seychelles. Introduces the SAFE SEAS case study of the maritime security sector in Seychelles, drawing on the SPIP methodology. The country profile is introduced, the organisation of maritime space reviewed and the core maritime security issues identified by the country are discussed. Keywords: Seychelles, SPIP Methodology; Mapping Maritime Security; Small Island Developing States; Maritime Governance; Spaces; Problems.
  • Maritime Security in Kenya. Provides a primer to the SAFE SEAS case study of the maritime security sector in Kenya drawing on elements of the SPIP methodology. It examines the maritime spaces of Kenya, the problems, and challenges facing these spaces as well as the existing legal, policy and institutional frameworks for tackling these problems. Keywords: Kenya, SPIP Methodology; Mapping Maritime Security; Blue Economy, Border Control, Maritime Governance; Western Indian Ocean.
  • Capturing Capacity Building. Presents a basic framework for data collection that allows for capturing maritime security capacity building activities in the SAFE SEAS country cases. It provides guidelines for how we aim at gathering data through desk research, interviews and participant observation in order to study how capacity building is carried out in practice. Keywords: Data Collection; Capacity Building; Conceptual Framework; Projects; Practice.